Resource Orchestration and Integration

What happens if you hire great people, invest in great technology, secure proper finances, yet there is poor integration between all these resources? The recently developed resource orchestration theory studies the processes by which managers handle resources to create competitive advantages. According to this theory, it is the way that resources interact with each other that results in advantage. In our brand new study, together with colleagues Stuart Barnes and Jan Mattsson, we discuss and develop a scale and methodology for measuring resource integration, i.e. the alignment, or fit between resources. We see the approach introduced in this paper both in the context of further research on integration and its consequences and as a practical tool for companies. Best of all, this paper was published as open access – so anyone can read and download it for free.

Read it online here:

Or download it here: Sund Barnes Mattsson 2018 IJOA-05-2018-1427

Interview in Pamplona

I was recently interviewed by prof. Sandra Cavero at the Universidad Publica de Navarra, where I was a visiting professor this fall.



Where are the Students?

Student absenteeism represents a growing problem in higher education, yet one that many academics and university administrations refuse to face. Some use the excuse of Humboldtian ideals of academic freedom to maintain that students should be allowed to choose whether or not to attend classes. Yet, mounting evidence suggests a) that absenteeism is rampant, and b) that students benefit from attending. This last finding should not be surprising, as it simply demonstrates that the learning activities that take place in university actually result in superior learning than staying home to read a book. This is as it should be. In our recent paper on this issue we bring further evidence for the positive attendance effect, and argue that universities should consider adopting relevant attendance policies where this makes sense.

Read the full paper here: Sund & Bignoux 2018 Final

Has Higher Education Policy become too One-Sided?

In a recent paper co-authored with a group of former students, we use critical discourse analysis to trace the development of higher education policy discourse in Denmark from the late 1970s until today. We find that the discourse has moved from a pluralistic one embracing not only the economic benefits of education, but also emphasizing on democracy, citizenship, and equality, towards a predominantly economic one, focused squarely on notions of globalization and competitiveness in a knowledge society. Are politicians neglecting all the wider benefits of education in their quest to satisfy the job market?

Read the full paper here: Political discourse on higher education in Denmark from enlightened citizen to homo economicus

Business Model Innovation in the Media Industry

Together with PhD student and former media business executive Henrik Jensen I have been studying how business models are changed by incumbent firms. Some of the results have now been published in an article in Journal of Media Business Studies. Digital entrants have changed the competitive landscape for advertisers and media. Over the past decade, media agencies have grown more rapidly than the media market as a whole, securing a larger share of the value generated in the advertising industry. We develop a process model describing how these agencies have altered their business models over a decade. We discuss three separate stages in this innovation process, labelled business model innovation (BMI) awareness, business model exploration, and business model exploitation. We find and document how different building blocks of the business model are a focal point of innovation in each stage of the BMI process. Our findings offer a way for the media industry to understand the transformation of media agencies. The full text can be found here: Jensen & Sund 2017 Final.

Symposium on Methods in Cognition Research

At the 2018 Academy of Management Meeting in Chicago, I will be organizing a panel symposium on “Methodological Challenges and Advances in  Managerial and Organizational Cognition”. The symposium is sponsored by both the Managerial and Organizational Cognition and Research Methods divisions of the Academy, and I am already looking forward to great discussions with my fellow organizers and panelists: Gerard Hodgkinson, Mark Healey, Karen Nokes, Daniella Laureiro Martinez, and Robert Galavan. The panel follows in the heels of the recently published book of the same name. The book and its various chapters can be found at this link:


Book Series Available as Free Download

Eight years ago, I met for lunch with Derek Osborn, a postal expert with decades of experience, to discuss an idea: Could we engage postal experts and thought leaders in a meaningful dialogue about the future of this important industry, in the face of digitalization and other radical changes?

Out of this simple idea came a book series, a number of seminars and many talks to and with managers from numerous countries and continents. We rediscovered the many faces of postal strategy, transformation and innovation, richly illustrated through the unique perspectives of people working for, with, and around this fascinating industry, in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa.

Now out of print, this collection of essays on the future of the post remains unique, and in agreement with the original publisher, Libri Publishing, I am proud to make the three volumes, as well as the later published collected essays, available as a free download.

The Future is in the Post volume 1

The Future is in the Post volume 2

The Future is in the Post volume 3

The 2013 published anthology, a sort of “best of” the first three volumes, can be found here:

Please feel free to read, share, and cite this work. To cite these publications:

Sund, K. J. & Osborn, D. (2010). The future is in the post: perspectives on strategy in the postal industry. Faringdon: Libri Publishing

Osborn, D., & Sund, K. J. (2011). The future is in the post II: perspectives on transformation in the postal industry. Faringdon: Libri Publishing

Sund, K. J. & Osborn, D. (2012). The future is in the post III: perspectives on innovation in the postal industry. Faringdon: Libri Publishing

Sund, K. J. & Osborn, D. (2014). The future is in the post: an anthology of perspectives. Faringdon: Libri Publishing

The Emperor’s New Clothes: why Old Firms Fail

A quick search online reveals that half of the Fortune 500 firms of the year 2000, have by now ceased to exist, either because they have been merged with other firms, or because they have gone bankrupt. Look at the really long term, say 60 years back, and only one in ten firms are still on that list. What’s going on?

If big businesses are those that benefit from advantages like economies of scale, strong capabilities, high R&D capacity, and advantaged access to investors, politicians, and other actors, then why do so many big businesses fail to survive over the long term? A lot has been written about this theme, and one explanation may be that such firms find it difficult to innovate – not in the sense of coming up with new products, but in the sense of coming up with the next “big thing”.

Managing New Business Models in Old Companies
In our recent MIT Sloan Management Review article we discuss some of the things managers need to look out for when trying to launch new business models in old companies. Our research points to three key areas of tension almost any existing business will face if it attempts to discover entirely new business models. Whether management succeeds in handling those tensions will determine their success in identifying and implementing new business models.

1.  Don’t settle too quickly on structure. Experimenting with the right structure to accomodate both old and new business models is an important dimension of business model innovation.

2. Balance top management support and experimentation. On the one hand, developing new business models will only be successful if the initiative is supported by top management. For example, such new business models may take time to become profitable. On the other hand, top management need to let people involved engage with the necessary experimentation, and not try to control or limit creativity.

3. Expect a power struggle for resources. A tension is bound to emerge concerning how many resources to devote to the old core business, and to the new emerging one.

As we note in the article: “The tensions we highlight imply that the design of an organizational structure that accommodates both new and older business models needs to be considered an intricate part of business model innovation. Organizational design has to be questioned and experimented with as part of the exploration. A top management team that is prepared for such exploration and aware of the organizational dimension of business model exploration may well be more likely to succeed at business model innovation.

To cite: 

Sund, K. J., Bogers, M., Villarroel, J. A., & Foss, N. (2016). Managing tensions between new and existing business models. MIT Sloan Management Review, 57(4), 8.

Why are Students Not Attending Class?

A big challenge for universities in many parts of the world is rampant absenteeism. Studies have reported that many students choose not to attend lectures, seemingly prefering self-study, and prioritizing other activities. Yet, universities invest enormous ressources in teaching facilities, materials, and staff. In order to optimize these investments we need to understand more about student behaviours.

In 2009, I moved to the United Kingdom to work at a London-based university, and the first thing that struck me was the high level of absenteeism among students. On a good day, less than half the students (in a class of over 200) were present at my lectures, and on a bad day this could drop to less than 1 in 3. Until then I had mainly taught MBA students and smaller classes in Switzerland, and typically well over 80% of students would be present at any given lecture. So why did students not attend class in London? This became the topic of an exploratory aurvey I administered to students, the results of which have just appeared in the book Innovative Management Education Pedagogies for Preparing Next-Generation Leaders“. Four key conclusions can be made from the results, which I outline below.

Perceptions Drive Behaviour

Students who perceived attendance as more important also reported higher levels of attendance. This would suggest that attending lectures is a conscious decision, driven by perceptions. Worryingly, 35% of students responded that attending class is at most somewhat important, and 11% even responded that attendance is very unimportant. When students don’t understand the benefits of class attendance, or the risks of non-attendance, they will adjust their behaviour accordingly. If universities believe that classroom activities are important for learning and achievement, the challenge then becomes to convince students that this is the case. As one student told me: “We learn what it takes in the first semester, and behave accordingly for the rest of our studies.

Some Students View Online Materials as a Substitute for Class

Today all universities use a virtual learning environment (VLE) – such as Moodle or Blackboard – to assist in teaching. Lecturers typically deposit materials, such as slides or articles on the platform, and some will go as far as posting actual lectures, videos, quizes or other materials on there. These are rarely meant to replace classroom activities. They are more commonly meant as a complement. However, in my survey, 1 in 3 students (32%) declared that they view online slides as a substitute to the classroom. This is worrying because they were not designed to be. If this is a general trend, it indicates a need for universities to educate students on the purpose and limits of the VLE.

Reasons for Non-Attendance are Eclectic… to Say the Least!

When asked for reasons why they skipped lectures, students came up with a long list of reasons, including traffic, illness, being tired, not liking the tutor, family issues, not being prepared for class, and so forth. However, the most common reason for non-attendance was declared to be pressure from competing learning tasks. In particular, 65% of respondents said they had skipped lectures due to coursework deadlines. Over-all the picture is one of students constantly adjusting their attendance behaviour to the needs and emotions of the moment. Students juggle between work, study, and social engagements, and make last-minute decisions regarding their participation in classroom activities.

What Can Universities do to Increase Attendance?
Interestingly, 59% of respondents indicated that there are things universities and lecturers can do to improve attendance levels. Not surprisingly (in view of answers to the question of reasons for non-attendance), suggestions given by students were varied, reflecting differences in their perceptions and behaviours. Suggestions included allowing more flexibility in choosing what lecture and seminar times to attend, and improving the quality of lectures both in terms of making them more interesting, interactive, and applied. Surprisingly, many students suggested reward and punishment schemes as a solution to raising attendance levels. Suggestions included giving marks for attendance. One student wrote: “For those students who miss one seminar or walk in late to write up 1000 words on the topic covered for that week.” Another even suggested a cash compensation: “Give a bursary or some kind of bonus and also some percentage of the final grade could be attributed to attendance.

It seems unlikely that universities will start paying students to attend class, but if classroom activities are designed to arm students with the necessary skills and knowledge to succeed in professional life, universities need to pay attention to the problem of abseenteism. After all, how can we be sure our students have actually learned anything if we have never even seen them. Is it enough that they’ve passed the exam?

To reference the original research article:

Sund, KJ 2016, ‘Attendance, Employability, Student Performance and Electronic Course Materials: an Exploration and Discussion‘. in SR Tiwari & L Nafees (eds), Innovative Management Education Pedagogies for Preparing Next-Generation Leaders. IGI global, Hershey PA, pp. 108-118.